Deciphering Hacking: From Movies, Fiction To Reality.

We have seen in many movies, or web-series a hacker is wearing hoodies, typing fast on a computer with random codes appearing in different colours, and a lot of enthusiasm and can-do attitude on actors faces. But in real life do they look in the same way? Do they keep typing that fast to hack anything? Let us find out.

Starting with the appearance, a hacker need not wear a hoodie, have a dark make up etc. They look like normal people with normal clothes and stuff. They don’t live dark rooms or remain isolated and move freely in society and have regular interactions with people.

Coming to the actual hacking, you need not type lines and lines of codes to hack anything. The process is not that complicated, and there are pre-built software’s that do most of the job. To understand more on this we need to know how is hacking done actually.

Before that, we need to know what are the types of hackers. Not all hackers are bad guys; some hackers protect many businesses from hacking and malware attacks. Primarily there are three types of hackers.

  1. Black Hat Hackers.
  2. White Hat Hackers.
  3. Grey Hat hackers.
  1. Black Hat Hackers: These are bad guys in the hacking world, they enter the systems without authorization. They introduce malicious files and destroy the system files. They are criminals, they steal the data, lock your systems, infect it and demand money to release it. The money is generally digital currency like bitcoin. They do this for financial gains or fun. The black hat hackers are a threat to data security in the world.
  2. White Hat Hackers: These are certified hackers, who work for the government and other business organisations. They do testing of the data and find loopholes and act as defenders to protect the data from black hat hackers. Therefore, they can be considered as the opposite of black hat hackers. They are also known as “Ethical hackers” or “Cybersecurity experts.”
  3. Grey Hat Hackers: These fall between black hat and white hat hackers. Generally, grey hat hackers find the system vulnerabilities and report it to the system administrator. Usually, they ask a small fee to fix it. The system administrator might accept or report it. If reported, they come under the black hat because they entered the system without the permission of the administrator.

We have learnt the primary type of hackers and their roles, now let us try to learn the type of hacking techniques generally used. There are 9 of them.

  1. Bait & Switch: As the name suggests, hackers use some deal price or a widget of a browser widget to hack. When you click on these links, it will redirect to another website which has a booby trap. When you enter that website and download anything or enter your details, they will be hacked.
  2.  Cookie Theft: Cookies theft mainly happens when we use unverified browser widgets. Cookies have a lot of information about internet footprint and usage. Cookies are plain or encrypted based on the website; secure websites use encrypted cookies for data privacy. When the widget is the booby trap, it scans cookies and sends it to the attacker.
  3.  Denial of Service/Distributed Denial of Service (DoS/DDoS): This is a very classic technique to bring down systems or websites. The hackers use bots as traffic and hit a website with that; the traffic is overwhelming that it makes the website inoperable. Therefore, this exposes a vulnerability on the website, and the hackers can infect it with malicious files.
  4. Eavesdropping: This is a technique used by hackers to hack a conversation between two parties and get as much information as possible. Hackers use tools to hack messages, calls or any digital conversation and get as much information as possible to hack.
  5.  Keylogging: The hackers install a software or a tool on the system, the tool records everything you type using your keyboard, and the information is sent to the hacker. Therefore, the hacker gets all information you type this can include passwords and other important stuff. Thus, they have all the information they need to hack.
  6. Malware: The hackers use some sort of software to introduce malware into your system. For example, you might have seen many a download links on a few websites. If you accidentally click on the wrong link, a software which is infected will be downloaded and the hackers get access to your system.
  7. Phishing: This attack uses disguised email as a weapon. The goal is to trick the email recipient into believing that the message is something they want or need. For example, you might receive an email notification that it is your bank and they want you to log in. As soon as you open the link it looks that the website is of your bank. Once you enter your login information, it directly goes to the hacker and your bank account is hacked.
  8. Watering Hole and WAP Attacks: In this, the hacker uses an open WIFI connection to lure in the users, as soon as you connect and start using it, the entire internet session you have used will be with the hacker.
  9. “Man in the Middle” (or “MITM”) Attack: It is a bit similar to eavesdropping, but in this technique the hackers have an option to be the middle man between the sender and receiver. Therefore the hacker can modify or even the destroy the data, this attack happens when we use a unauthenticated website for communications.

We have learnt the types of hackers and methods they use to hack. Now let us learn on how to save ourselves from cyberattacks.You can follow these steps to save yourselves from cyberattacks.

  • Never use or give your information on an unsecured website.
  • Never open malicious emails.
  • Don’t download malicious software’s.
  • Never share your passwords via digital medium unless it is an emergency.
  • Never connect to public open WI-FI.
  • Don’t log in on an unsecured website.
  • Never use non-secure widgets.
  • Update your system and servers regularly as the developers release patches to defend against attacks.

If we follow the above steps we are very safe from being attacked or infected from any malware.


In the last article, we have learnt the closest theory to the theory of everything, which is “String Theory.” In this article, let us try to understand Quantum physics.

Quantum Physics: Quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at its most fundamental level. The basic story of everything around us and including us are elementary particles. So in simple terms, quantum physics is the study of everything in the universe. It explains how everything works in the universe.

Pictorial representation of quantum physics.

Quantum physics and quantum mechanics are similar; the term “mechanics” indicates doing calculations. So how did the idea of quantum mechanics come to existence? To understand that we should know the concepts of electromagnetism. 

Electromagnetism: At the subatomic level, electromagnetism is defined as the force between electrically charged particles. It is the fundamental reason electrons bound to the nucleus and responsible for the complete structure of the atom.

Electromagnetic force: It is is a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. It acts between charged particles and is the combination of all magnetic and electrical forces. It can be attractive or repulsive.

Electromagnetic waves: These are the waves generated when an electric field comes in contact with the magnetic field. These are the combination of oscillating electric and magnetic fields.

In 1900, a group of bulb manufacturers came to Max Planck to know how to make their bulbs more efficient and take less electricity. He conducted a few experiments and was shocked by the results. According to classical laws of physics, the energy emitted by a body is continuous, but when he observed the energy emitted by the light bulbs, it was discrete. So the basis of all quantum physics, the “Planck’s Law” was born.

Black Body:   A blackbody is an object that absorbs all the radiation falling on it. An object that absorbs all the radiation can also emit all radiation. Therefore, a blackbody will radiate maximum energy when heated to a given temperature. The energy was not continuous, so Planck came up with the “Planks Quantum Theory” Or “Planck’s Law.”

Black body graph.

Planck’s Quantum Theory: Planks Quantum Theory says that energy of electromagnetic radiation is transferred in terms of energy bundles, these bundles are called “Quantum” or “Quanta” can also be called as “Photons.” The energy of each photon is directly proportional to the frequency of electromagnetic radiation.

It was a revolution in the field of physics, Planck got Nobel prize for the same in 1918. However, this theory was limited to the black body. In 1913 “Niels Bohr” came up with his atomic model which paved the way for quantum theory to the atomic level. According to his atomic model, energy is transferred only in specific, well-defined quantities. Electrons should move around the nucleus but only in prescribed orbits. When jumping from one orbit to another with lower energy, a light quantum is emitted. Bohr’s theory could explain why atoms emitted light in fixed wavelengths. The modern shape of quantum physics was given by “Albert Einstein” with his “Photo-Electric Effect.”

Photo Electric Effect:  It is a phenomenon in which, electrons are emitted from a metal surface when light is incident on it. In physics terms, electrically charged particles are discharged from or within a material when it absorbs electromagnetic radiation. In this, Einstein used the principle of packet energy called quanta and proved the quantum physics existence on materials absorbing light.

Pictorial representation of photo electric effect.

The phenomena of Quantum Physics:

Wave-Particle Duality: Imagine subatomic particles as balls bouncing around, but sometimes we have to imagine them as spread-out waves and now consider them doing both, yes it is a bit hard to imagine. Try painting this picture. You took a subatomic particle and increased its sizes to that of a stone. You have thrown that into a small water body. What do we observe? Ripples on the surface, which are nothing but waves. Now Imagine one of the waves has hit a stick on the way, and all the waves disappear. Now your stone sized subatomic particle pops up from that the point of the stick. It is strange, but yeah that is how subatomic particles exhibit the properties of a wave and a particle. 

Pictorial representation of wave-particle duality.

Quantum Tunneling: Now imagine you have a football and kicking it against the wall, it keeps coming back, and you continue this for some time. Suddenly, the football without smashing or interacting with the wall passed through the wall and came out on the other side and moving away. Yes, this crazy! But this is what happens at the subatomic level. Quantum tunnelling is an important reason why we exist. Inside the sun as we know emits light by nuclear fusion in which two hydrogen atoms come together, and the protons in their nucleus will bounce off each other. If there were no quantum tunnelling, even the nuclei and the hydrogen atoms would bounce of each other, and there would be nuclear fusion. For fusion to happen, they quantum tunnel through each other, giving us the sunlight and without sunlight, there is no existence of life form. 

Pictorial representation of quantum tunneling.

Superposition: Imagine a ballet dancer doing a pirouette, yeah it is lovely same is quantum physics, now imagine a ballet dancer doing an anti-clock pirouette, yes it is hard now comes the fun part. Imagine a ballet dancer doing the clockwise and anti-clockwise pirouettes at the same time. Yes, it is tough to imagine, but that is the concept of superposition. When we got to get a scan under the MRI machine, the machine turns the hydrogen atoms in our body in both ways so that the doctors can see inside the body. 

Pictorial Representation of Super position.

It is tough to imagine these like two spins at the same time, tunnelling etc., But we can describe it properly using mathematics. The applications of quantum physics are very vast and very useful. As said above the MRI machine is one of them. By understanding the properties of silicon, we designed silicon chips which are the building blocks of computers and its technology. Not only these but they helped us build x rays, lasers, holography, the modern-day periodic table, fluorescence materials and many more important technologies that we see today. 

In short, without the understanding and usage of quantum physics, we would never be living this lifestyle, and we would be backward by at least 100 years. 

Artificial Intelligence: from human intelligence to beyond

Many of us have these question Why is that ends up with “n” number of additional questions! But in precise, I’m going to tell you “why we got to rush for AI.”

Artificial Intelligence, mostly known as AI, is the simulation of human intelligence by devices. In precise, it is the method by which devices demonstrate certain aspects of human intelligence like reasoning, learning, self- correction. Since its commencement, it has shown unprecedented growth. Artificial Intelligence has undoubtedly been a prime entity in today’s world, and it has demonstrated a robust exponential growth throughout. Innovations like Tesla’s Autopilot, Google’s DeepMind, Virtual assistants Siri, Alexa, Cortana are the best examples of the future scope of AI.

Here are some fields where AI can change the future to best:

Artificial Intelligence in Data Analysis

AI is the new engine which is driven by the best fuel called DATA. It is originating some companies to success and devising creative and economical solutions to most of the problems. It would profit immensely if the potential of AI is used to detect patterns and trends that are invisible to the mundane eye. In simple, this enables business’ to target the right customers for the product.

In 2019 alone AI, along with data analysisdrove almost $2.2 trillion worth of value worldwide. If the stakes are this huge, the role of AI in deriving meaningful insights, trends and patterns become vital.

Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture

Here is a fact, the world needs to produce over 30% of its current production in just another 15 years. Thoughtful planning of resources along with AI, will help the farmers grow sustainable production while managing resources actively. Considering factors such as climate change, reduction in water resources, decrease in cultivating land, population growth, AI has enormous potential to provide innovative answers to improve the crop yield during the year to meet the increasing demands.

The future scope of AI involves usage of robots to assist in crop health disclosure, reaping and soil analysis which ensures positive outcomes in the long term.

Nowadays, smartphones are used to perform a wide variety of analytics and tests in the field of agriculture. If that paired with AI, the chances are endless with tremendous potential.

Artificial Intelligence in Automation

The application of automating rule-based works using machine learning is called Robotic Process Automation(RPA). As the scope of AI is immense, growth in automation is directly proportional to automating the tasks in a diverse number of fields. We can forecast a high amount of productivity by making use of AI in daily jobs, holding the high efficiency and throughput of automation.

Automation helps humans’ to focus on the crucial aspects of their jobs while leaving the repetitive work to machines as we all know it can coverup the risky jobs like welding, working in coal mines, bomb diffusion etc.

Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity

With the tremendous growth in the availability of the Internet everywhere to everyone, cyber-attacks are growing in the same. In today’s world safety and privacy of one’s data is the most concerned, and from many years, cybersecurity is the answer for it. Even though there are rigid and approved methodologies in usage, hackers always find a workaround. Novel AI techniques like Recurrent Neural Networks can detect fraud in initial stages. This detection method will be able to scan thousands of transactions spontaneously and organise them. By which one can save lots of time as it focuses on cases where there is a high possibility for the scam.

Why should you be certified in AI:

Over the last 2years, there is a 60% increase in demand for AI learning experts in the industry. Also in India, the growth in the size of this sector is estimated up to $16 billion by 2025. Considering this as the central aspect many companies/industries feel that the shortage of skilled people is lessening the adoption of AI in business which makes a massive impact of loss in future.

With the lockdown to combat the deadly Covid-19 students and professionals have lots of time in their hands. To utilize this time productively, several people are looking for resources to upskill themselves. Considering this here are some suggested courses that will help you in mastering the AI course from scratch.

1) Introduction to Neural-Networks and Deep Learning by Great Learning :

 This course requires learners to have essential knowledge of Python, linear regression, logistic regression, and introductory algebra. This course covers different aspects of neural networks such as loss functions, hyperparameter tuning, deep neural networks, batch normalization, tensor flow and so on.

Duration: 15 Hours.

Website Link: 

2) IBM AI Engineering Professional Certificate by Coursera:

 To master fundamental concepts of deep learning and machine learning can undertake this course. Six courses are offered under this professional certificate like machine learning with Python, deep neural networks with PyTorch, scalable machine learning on big data using Apache Spark, AI Data Science, etc.

Website Link: 

3) Introduction to AI for Business by Udemy :

This course provides an overview of what predictive data analytics are, which AI software is available, and how can they enhance the business performance and also about how Microsoft is using this technology. Moreover, it’s free of cost!

Duration: 1Hour

Website Link: 

4) AI technologies for Business Planning and Decision Making by FutureLearn:

This course helps you to learn how AI technology and AI processes help businesses with both human and automated business planning and decision-making. This course comes with free of cost as well.

Duration: 6 Hours

Website Link:

5) AI for Everyone by Edx:

This course covers the fundamentals of Artificial Intelligence (AI), and its application to solve real-world problems including, search, constraint satisfaction problems games, machine learning, logic etc. It also helps to solve the real AI problems using python and perform machine learning algorithms.

Duration: 108 Hours

Website Link: 

6) Elements of AI by Reaktor and the University of Helsinki:

This program can be taken by anyone interested in AI as there is no complicated math or programming involved in it. It covers the basics of artificial intelligence and enables you to learn what is possible, what is not, and helps you to recognise how AI is transforming our lives.

Duration: 30 Hours

Website Link: 

My suggestion to all the folks:

After the completion of Lockdown, it becomes so hard to find a job. The main reason for it is well known – many have lost their jobs, and as usual, many graduates have come out with degrees alone! So when you go for an interview, obviously they will question you about what have you learnt in this lockdown period. If you say the same answer like before “I know programming, scripting, java, c++ etc, etc.; without a doubt, they say NO to you. So it’s better to be prepared with some new technologies in hand before hearing that big NO for the recruiter.

India, let’s sense the senses!

What has happened to our eye?
Are we actually even seeing?;
When we can’t really see what’s going on in our country?

Our rights, our power, our money
But looks like we too are politician’s bunnies;
Our wrong electoral choices;
Rapes, murders are the consequences.

What has happened to our voice?
Has money blinded our morals & principles?
That being ignorant has become so integral.

‘India is my country,
All Indians are my brothers & sisters’
Every person once in their lifetime has pledged this.
So why do our words & actions not coexist?

What has happened to our ear?
For we can’t even listen to;
The shrieks & cry of India’s daughters.

How many times will we keep proving;
That humanity means nothing;
For money has now become everything.

What has happened to the sense of our senses?
For not only girls, even animals fear any touch;
Is this the future India had promised us?
Is this why the legends fought for years for our freedom?
Was this all?

Wake up, Indians!
And for once wake your senses!
See & listen clearly;
For our voices are our weapons towards what wrong;
If everyone’s going wait to wake up till it’s all over;
Any good excepted will be long gone;
Even before you wake up to yawn!