In the last science article, we have learnt the concept of the information paradox. In this article, we shall learn the concept of nuclear energy and the important uses of it.
Nuclear Energy is the energy that is present within the nucleus of an atom. An atom is a small unit of matter which makes up everything in the universe.
Nuclear Energy is useful in creating Electricity. But as the energy is within the atomic nuclei of an atom. Therefore, we need to separate it from atomic nuclei and use it.
The process is extremely difficult, and nuclear power plants are used to split atoms of an element and extract the energy. To extract the energy from the nuclei of the atoms, nuclear fission is done.
Nuclear fission is a process in which, the nucleus of a single atom splits into two or more nuclei.
The most commonly used fuel for nuclear energy is Uranium 235. The basic concept of a nuclear reactor working is “Controlled chain reaction.”
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions in which the reactive or by-product causes additional reactions.
Let us know understand how a nuclear reactor inside a nuclear plant works.
- The outer layer of the plant is covered with concrete steel structure and is called containment.
- Heavy water or graphite is used as a moderator to control the speed of atoms coming out of the fuel.
- The generally used fuel material is uranium—U-235.
- Control rods like cadmium, hafnium or boron are used.
- A nuclear reactor has a coolant like water or molten salt. The heat from the chain reaction reacts with coolant and produces steam.
Working Of A Nuclear Reactor: Let us understand how a nuclear reactor works.
- Uranium 235 is filled inside a nuclear reactor.
- The atoms of uranium collide with a neutron, this released a chained reaction and a huge amount of energy.
- Control rods like cadmium, hafnium or boron are inserted to absorb the excessive atoms produced by fission. By this, the chain reaction is controlled.
- The moderator liquid is used to control the speed of atoms and slow down the reaction.
- The Energy from the fission reacts with coolant and produces steam.
- The steam is then used to run turbines to produce electricity.
This is how a nuclear reactor works. It is one of the important forms of renewable energy on this planet.