## Simple Understanding Of The Complex Universe Part-8.

In the last article, we have understood the concept of wormholes. In this article, we shall understand the concept of “Chaos Theory.”

Chaos Theory:  In simple terms, we can define chaos theory as the study of how tiny variations can have huge effects within a moving system. In scientific terms, chaos theory, in science and mathematics, the study of apparently random or unpredictable behaviour in systems directed by deterministic laws.

Most of us think that chaos theory is a philosophical term rather than a scientific or physics term. But we forget the fact that science is the study of everything. Like most of the revolutionary physics discoveries like the theory of relativity, quantum physics etc., the chaos theory is also born when classical laws of physics are questioned. Let us understand the history of chaos theory.

History Of Chaos Theory:

The history of Chaos Theory goes very long back in the realm of science, with Newtons Laws of Motion, it was believed that every movement in the space and around is predictable. As the math was perfect, no one questioned it. There were a few scientists who asked what would happen if the movements were not precise but were rejected due to lack of proof.

In the 1800s there was the concept of “Laplace’s demon” which changed the course of the standard physics. “Laplace’s Demon” concerns the idea of determinism, particularly the belief that the past ultimately determines the future. It is proposed by “Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace”. This caught the eye many of the physicists and their many theories, but none could theoretically prove it.

In the early 1900s, a French mathematician by the name “Henri Poincare” began studying orbits in the solar system. Initial work on the solar system, done by the physicists like Newton, had developed nice, finished equations that showed how orbits worked. Poincare decided to see what might happen if he added more elements into these equations.

When Poincare changed the initial starting point of some of the orbits in the solar system, he found very different results! Poincare found that even minimal changes to the initial equations made it almost impossible to predict how orbits might work. This discovery by Poincare led people to refer to him as the father of chaos.

In 1961 an MIT mathematician named “Edward Norton Lorenz” was running his weather calculations on a computer. He developed a computer program based on intricate mathematical formulas that generated weather patterns. After a few months, Lorenz decided he wanted to see the weather patterns again. So, he re-entered all of the data but got very different results!

Lorenz was shocked to see this, and he checked the data very thoroughly. He found that he made a decimal error at a point, and the data was very different from which he got initially. By this, Lorenz developed “chaos theory.”

Chaos theory has a very widely used idea called “The Butterfly Effect.”

Butterfly Effect: It is a metaphor that is is meant to prove that small, unimportant events can lead to meaningful results over time. For example, if a butterfly flaps its wings in Tokyo, there might be a tornado in Texas.

Now let us understand the applications of Chaos Theory.

Applications Of Chaos Theory:

• Turbulence: With the mathematical approach of chaos theory, we can understand and predict turbulence.
• Weather: Using the math of chaos theory, we can predict the weather, as weather is non linear.
• Stock Market: Using the equations of chaos theory, and by adjusting its values, we can predict the stock market results.

We can say that chaos theory can be used when the data is not linear, and we need accurate results using the same non-linear data.

## Simple Understanding Of The Complex Universe Part-6.

In the last article, we have understood the concept of antimatter and its applications. In this article, let us know the concept of black holes.

Blackhole: In simple terms, we can define blackhole as space which has a powerful gravitational force. So strong that even light can’t escape it. In physics terms, A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.

Black holes are formed when dying star implodes itself at the centre and creates a “supernova”. A supernova is a star that increases significantly in brightness because of a catastrophic explosion that expels most of its mass. As even light cant escape black hole, black holes are not visible to the naked eye.

There are two main parts of a black hole, the event horizon and singularity. Let us try to understand them.

1. Event Horizon:  It is the boundary surrounding the region of space of a black hole from which nothing (not even light) can escape.
2. Singularity: In the heart of a black hole is a gravitational singularity, a one-dimensional point which holds a huge mass in an infinitely tiny space. The density and gravity become infinite and spacetime curves infinitely. The laws of physics as we know them to cease to operate.

If we fall inside a black hole, we don’t get sucked in like a vacuum cleaner. If we fall inside, we get stretched vertically and compressed horizontally. We are stretched to an extent where you become hot stram of plasma. As gravity acts like a million times more than the standard gravity, your body becomes a massive massacre. But for the nth zeptosecond you are in the black hole, you can see the universe in fast-forward like looking into the future.

The sun of our solar system cannot be turned into a black hole as it is not massive enough to explode. But hypothetically if it turns, there will be no effect of planets as the gravitational force in the solar system would be the same. But we will freeze to death due to lack of sunlight. Let us understand the history of the black hole.

History Of Black Hole: Albert Einstein first predicted the existence of black holes in 1916, with his general theory of relativity. The term “black hole” was coined many years later in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler. After decades of black holes being known only as theoretical objects, the first physical black hole ever discovered was spotted in 1971.

In 2017, using eight telescopes known as “Event Horizon Telescopes,” the first image of the black hole was captured.

Applications Of Blackhole:

1. Black Holes gives us a way of studying abstract concepts like gravity and general relativity, magnetic field and many properties of these concepts.
2. A supermassive black hole is theorized to be at the centre of every galaxy, implying it is necessary for the existence of a galaxy.
3.  It explains the concept of Tidal Forces.
4. It accounts for a significant amount of mass in the universe.
5.  A moving or spinning black hole can hypothetically create a wormhole, a way of transitioning across space faster than light. It is hoped that in the future some means of transport can be founded to help us travel in these portals, which may lay the base for the search of extraterrestrial beings and uncommon minerals and elements.

## The Reality Of Imaginary Conversation.

Ray is suffering from Schizoaffective disorder ( a combination of symptoms of schizophrenia and mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. )He still has hallucinations. He is always fascinated by science. He sits in his room and reads blogs and books on science. One day he learns about light and is very intrigued by its speed and properties of light. He was about to sleep and sees a beam of light falling on a rock and imagines they are having a conversation. Here it goes.

Hey light, why such hurry,
It makes me blurry.
I know you are the fastest,
And you are the brightest.
You make the night bright,
You ignite the beauty at every sight.

Hello Rock, here we meet,
No time to chat and greet.
You are just a rock,
People use you to mock.
Keep calm and accept my greatness.

Hey, I was just nice,
You may be more wise.
You lose nothing when you care,
It makes you more aware.

You are a rock without any use,
You have nothing but an excuse.
I make things glow and show the beauty,
Take a good look at you and go back to reality.

You may highlight the beauty and make it glow,
Whom will you glow when there are none to show?

Ray thinks of this has a smirk on his face thinking how did a hallucination become a reality of everyone’s life. He smiles and goes to sleep.

In the end, everyone in this world is essential and are helpful. If we start differentiating people based on any factor, we are just fooling ourselves. I’m not saying to use people and throw them out. I’m saying if we see people as people, the world would be a much better place to live.